A number is brought risk factors by diabetes mellitus. Vast majority of the problems caused to the fetus that is growing are a consequence of high glucose levels which makes sugar intake significant. Since the risk left uncontrolled include both birth defects and fetal death, this is true of the woman with diabetes mellitus or gestational diabetes mellitus. The most serious problems related to a mother is ketoacidosis, which is a rise in her blood caused by high glucose levels acidity. Fetal death rates are greater by 50% from this complication since the fetal enzyme system can no longer operate in a high acid environment.
Another element in death rates in parasitic pregnancies is the risk of birth defects. This risk occurs in 5 to 10% of pregnancies wherein diabetes mellitus is a factor. Medical research shows that an array of factors including high levels of blood sugar brings about the risk of birth defects. The heart, nerve system, and skeletal system may all be affected in the developing fetus. Coarctation of the aorta, septal defects, and transposition of the excellent vessels are heart defects which are at a heightened risk for diabetes. The nerve system may suffer from hydrocephalus, meningomyelocele, and ancephaly. Sacral agenisis can be a disorder specific to gestational diabetes mellitus wherein the lumbar vertebral column and sacrum are not able to develop correctly.
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This has the effect of severely arresting the development of the lower extremities. Macrosomia, that is excessive growth and fat storage, is another chance variable for gestational diabetes. Babies born with this condition are excessively large for their gestational age however it may be controlled if the mom keeps her blood sugar levels under control. Considerable amounts of glucose through the placenta are the main causes of this problem wherein that the fetus produces large volumes of insulin to deal with it. This over supply of insulin causes hyperinsulinism and hyperglycemia that is the main factor in macrosomic babies.
Babies who are suffering from this condition are not able to be delivered vaginally due to their large size so a c segment must be done. The reverse of macrosomia may also occur in a diabetic mother. Intrauterine growth restriction is a condition brought on by changes in the mother’s blood vessel system and leads to a gestatamente small baby. These blood vessel changes compromise the blood circulation to the fetus, which limits that the amount of nutrients that the fetus receives. High fetal insulin levels also promote the enzymes necessary for surfactant production are the distress syndrome wherein inhibited.